In the UK the relationship between salt and health was considered by the official Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition in 2003 (1). This report confirmed earlier recommendations that the average intake for the adult population should be 6 gm/day of salt (sodium chloride) which is equivalent to 2.4 gm/day of sodium. This means men should be consuming 7 gm/day and women 5 gm/day. It is generally accepted that the average intake in the UK is 9 gm/day and so to achieve the recommendation would require a reduction of about one third. However a survey of people aged over 65 found that the average intake for men was 6.8 gm/day and for women 5.3 gm/day (2). The SACN report concluded that there is an association between the intake of salt and blood pressure and that a reduction in dietary salt intake would lower the blood pressure risk for the whole population. However it was recognised that the long-term effects on health and premature mortality were less certain. This approach has a number of limitations which include the following: An association does not demonstrate cause and effect The focus of attention has been on blood pressure which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It has been assumed that any reduction represents an improvement in health which is not necessarily true. While it is probably beneficial for those who have raised...Read More
As this is Blog 50, I thought it would be instructive to look back over some of the earlier blogs and attempt to highlight some of the key message that have emerged. It is now over 30 years since official guidelines on diet were first issued by health professionals and usually endorsed by governments. Prior to this there were policies which were designed to ensure adequate intakes of the essential nutrients such as vitamins and minerals. The “new nutrition” which appeared in the late 1970s/early 1980s focussed on the major constituents in the food, particularly the fats and carbohydrates. These recommendations were initially formulated in the USA, primarily because of concern about heart disease, where the death rates were among the highest in the world. The World Health Organisation (WHO) took the lead from the USA with the result that very many national nutrition policies all over the world were essentially the same as in the USA. With respect to implementation, the emphasis has been on the advice to reduce the total fat and especially the saturated fat (SFA). Here in the UK between 1969 and 2000 the National Food Survey (NFS) shows that total fat consumption had fallen from 120 to 74 g/day. Over the same period the consumption of saturated fat (SFA) decreased from 56.7 to 29.2 g/day. (The NFS was discontinued in 2000). My own interest...Read More
In Blog 48 I explained how the brothers Cedric and Frank Garland identified the possible link between exposure to sunshine, which resulted in the formation of Vitamin D in the skin, and the incidence of colon cancer. Since then there have been many studies that confirm these ideas. William Grant conducted an ecological study of cancer mortality rates in different areas of the USA with respect to exposure of solar UV-B (1). He found that the mortality rates are correlated with the solar exposure for 13 cancers. For men these are cancer of the bladder, colon, oesophagus, , prostate, rectum, stomach and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. For women these are cancer of the bladder, breast, colon, kidney, ovary, rectum, stomach, uterus and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. On the basis of these results he estimated that about 15,000 white and 700 black Americans died prematurely from cancer every year between 1970 and 1994 due to insufficient exposure to solar UV-B. Data collected from 47,800 men who participated in the Health Professionals’ Follow-Up Study were used to relate the level of serum 25(OH)Vitamin D to the incidence of cancer. Between 1986 and 2000 there were 4286 cases of cancer diagnosed (excluding organ-confined prostate cancer and non-melanoma skin cancer).Of these 2025 resulted in death. It was found that an increment of 25 nmol/L in the predicted level of the 25(OH)Vitamin D was associated with a reduction...Read More
The most up-to-date information on Vitamin D provides convincing evidence that most people suffer from an inadequate supply which is linked to increased risk of a wide range of common diseases. The role of Vitamin D in diseases other than rickets can be attributed to the work of 2 brothers Cedric and Frank Garland. In 1974 they attended a lecture which showed that there were major differences in the incidence of cancer across the American states. As a consequence of this both of them decided to dedicate their life’s work to understanding the causes of these diseases. At the outset they noted that the states of New Mexico and Arizona with the highest values for solar radiation (500 gm-cal/cm2) also had colon cancer rates for white males which were relatively low. Between 1959 and 1961 the values were 6.7 and 10.1 per 100?000 population, respectively. By contrast, New York, New Hampshire, and Vermont had the lowest statewide solar radiation values (300 gm-cal/cm2) and experienced colon cancer rates for white males of 17.3, 15.3, and 11.3 per 100?000 populations, respectively, during the same period. As a consequence they decided to conduct a more detailed investigation into the relationship between the colon cancer rates and exposure to sunlight across the USA. The results for white males confirmed that a low incidence of colon cancer is associated with a high exposure to...Read More
“Anticancer: a new way of life” is the title of a book written by Dr David Servan-Schreiber, who was clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine(1). At the age of 31 years the author was diagnosed with brain cancer. This stimulated him to investigate various methods and approaches to overcome the cancer. As a consequence he made alterations to his lifestyle that enabled him to survive for a further 20years. He died in July 2011. The book is the story of his life and describes what he discovered. Because of his cancer and his specialised understanding of medicine the book provides a unique insight into current knowledge of the disease. Anyone who has cancer will find it to be extremely valuable and encouraging. But the book also has important lessons on how cancer can be prevented. In this blog I can only touch on some of the key messages and I would strongly recommend it. Alternatively it is worth consulting the Anticancer website(2). Although some people may be at high risk of developing cancer because of their genes, the fact remains that there has been a huge increase in the incidence of cancer in the recent past which can only have been caused by changes in the environment. In particular, during the last 50 years there has been: The addition of large quantities of...Read More
- 304. Sulphonylureas increase cardiac deaths but are still recommended for use after Metformin in type two diabetics in Scotland.
- 303. Statins: Why it is crucial to have a comprehensive picture
- 302. The Conventional Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D)
- 301. Many Faces of Insulin Resistance
- 300. HEALTHY EATING: THE BIG MISTAKE
- 197,000 deaths per year
in the EU are caused by ADRs: total cost to society of ADRs in the EU
is €79 billion.
about 45 mins ago
- Why are patients not always presented with the harsh reality of the dangers of medical practice before treatment?
about 1 hour ago
- Limit intake of polyunsaturates because they can increase insulin resistance which is bad news!
about 1 hour ago
- Comprehensive batch of case histories which confirms the failure of the conventional treatment for T2D.
about 2 hours ago
- In November 2013 the USA DoJ announced that J&J would pay more than $2.2 billion as a result of criminal and civil… https://t.co/jgHHuby4BX
about 2 hours ago